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SPEED RESTRICTIONS

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All of the information on this website is for "informational purposes only" and is not considered legal guidance or counsel. The information may not be accurate or up-to-date at the time it is being veiwed. You must consult with an attorney for legal guidance in any matter. New York State Vehicle and Traffic Laws. Do not rely on this information for legal guidance.


1180. Basic rule and maximum limits. (a) No person shall drive a vehicle at a speed greater than is reasonable and prudent under the conditions and having regard to the actual and potential hazards then existing. (b) Except as provided in subdivision (g) of this section and except when a special hazard exists that requires lower speed for compliance with subdivision (a) of this section or when maximum speed limits have been established as hereinafter authorized, no person shall drive a vehicle at a speed in excess of fifty-five miles per hour. (c) Except as provided in subdivision (g) of this section, whenever maximum school speed limits have been established on a highway adjacent to a school as authorized in section sixteen hundred twenty, sixteen hundred twenty-two, sixteen hundred thirty, sixteen hundred forty-three or sixteen hundred sixty-two-a, no person shall drive in excess of such maximum school speed limits during: (1) school days at times indicated on the school zone speed limit sign, provided, however, that such times shall be between the hours of seven o'clock A.M. and six o'clock P.M. or alternative times within such hours; or (2) a period when the beacons attached to the school zone speed limit sign are flashing and such sign is equipped with a notice that indicates that the school zone speed limit is in effect when such beacons are flashing, provided, however, that such beacons shall only flash during student activities at the school and up to thirty minutes immediately before and up to thirty minutes immediately after such student activities. (d) 1. Except as provided in subdivision (g) of this section, whenever maximum speed limits, other than school speed limits, have been established as authorized in sections sixteen hundred twenty, sixteen hundred twenty-two, sixteen hundred twenty-three, sixteen hundred twenty-seven, sixteen hundred thirty, sixteen hundred forty-three, sixteen hundred forty-four, sixteen hundred fifty-two, sixteen hundred sixty-two-a, sixteen hundred sixty-three, and sixteen hundred seventy, no person shall drive in excess of such maximum speed limits at any time. 2. Except as provided in subdivision (g) of this section, whenever maximum speed limits, other than school speed limits, have been established with respect to any restricted highway as authorized in section sixteen hundred twenty-five, no person shall drive in excess of such maximum speed limits at any time. (e) The driver of every vehicle shall, consistent with the requirements of subdivision (a) of this section, drive at an appropriate reduced speed when approaching and crossing an intersection or railway grade crossing, when approaching and going around a curve, when approaching a hill crest, when approaching and passing by an emergency situation involving any authorized emergency vehicle which is parked, stopped or standing on a highway and which is displaying one or more red or combination red, white, and/or blue lights pursuant to the provisions of paragraph two and subparagraph b of paragraph four of subdivision forty-one of section three hundred seventy-five of this chapter, when traveling upon any narrow or winding roadway, and when any special hazard exists with respect to pedestrians, or other traffic by reason of weather or highway conditions, including, but not limited to a highway construction or maintenance work area. (f) Except as provided in subdivision (g) of this section and except when a special hazard exists that requires lower speed for compliance with subdivision (a) or (e) of this section or when a lower maximum speed limit has been established, no person shall drive a vehicle through a highway construction or maintenance work area at a speed in excess of the posted work area speed limit. The agency having jurisdiction over the affected street or highway may establish work area speed limits which are less than the normally posted speed limits; provided, however, that such normally posted speed limit may exceed the work area speed limit by no more than twenty miles per hour; and provided further that no such work area speed limit may be established at less than twenty-five miles per hour. (g) (i) No person who uses a radar or laser detector in a vehicle with a gross vehicle weight rating of more than eighteen thousand pounds, or a commercial motor vehicle with a gross vehicle weight rating of more than ten thousand pounds, shall drive at a speed in excess of fifty-five miles per hour or, if a maximum speed limit other than fifty-five miles per hour as hereinbefore authorized has been established, at a speed in excess of such speed limit. The presence in any such vehicle of either: (1) a radar or laser detector connected to a power source and in an operable condition; or (2) a concealed radar or laser detector where a part of such detector is securely affixed to some part of the vehicle outside of the cab, in a manner which renders the detector not readily observable, is presumptive evidence of its use by any person operating such vehicle. Either such presumption shall be rebutted by any credible and reliable evidence which tends to show that such radar or laser detector was not in use. (ii) The provisions of this section shall not be construed as authorizing the seizure or forfeiture of a radar or laser detector, unless otherwise provided by law. (h) Upon a conviction for a violation of subdivision (b), (c), (d), (f) or (g) of this section, the court shall record the speed upon which the conviction was based on the certificate required to be filed with the commissioner pursuant to section five hundred fourteen of this chapter, or if the conviction occurs in an administrative tribunal established pursuant to article two-A of this chapter, the speed upon which the conviction was based shall be entered in the department's records. 1. Every person convicted of a violation of subdivision (b) or paragraph one of subdivision (d) of this section shall be punished as follows: (i) Where the court or tribunal records or enters that the speed upon which the conviction was based exceeded the applicable speed limit by not more than ten miles per hour, by a fine of not less than forty-five nor more than one hundred fifty dollars; (ii) Where the court or tribunal records or enters that the speed upon which the conviction was based exceeded the applicable speed limit by more than ten miles per hour but not more than thirty miles per hour, by a fine of not less than ninety nor more than three hundred dollars or by imprisonment for not more than fifteen days or by both such fine and imprisonment; (iii) Where the court or tribunal records or enters that the speed upon which the conviction was based exceeded the applicable speed limit by more than thirty miles per hour, by a fine of not less than one hundred eighty nor more than six hundred dollars, or by imprisonment for not more than thirty days, or by both such fine and imprisonment. 2. Every person convicted of a violation of subdivision (a) or (e) of this section shall be punished by a fine of not less than forty-five nor more than one hundred fifty dollars, or by imprisonment for not more than fifteen days, or by both such fine and imprisonment. 3. Every person convicted of a violation of paragraph two of subdivision (d), subdivision (f) or (g) of this section shall be punished as follows: (i) Where the court or tribunal records or enters that the speed upon which the conviction was based exceeded the applicable speed limit by not more than ten miles per hour, by a fine of not less than ninety nor more than one hundred fifty dollars; (ii) Where the court or tribunal records or enters that the speed upon which the conviction was based exceeded the applicable speed limit by more than ten miles per hour, but not more than thirty miles per hour, by a fine of not less than one hundred eighty nor more than three hundred dollars or by imprisonment for not more than thirty days, or by both such fine and imprisonment, provided, however, that where the vehicle is either (A) in violation of any rules or regulations involving an out-of-service defect relating to brake systems, steering components and/or coupling devices, or (B) transporting flammable gas, radioactive materials or explosives, the fine shall be three hundred dollars or imprisonment for not more than thirty days, or both such fine and imprisonment; (iii) Where the court or tribunal records or enters that the speed upon which the conviction was based exceeded the applicable speed limit by more than thirty miles per hour, by a fine of not less than three hundred sixty nor more than six hundred dollars or by imprisonment for not more than thirty days or by both such fine and imprisonment, provided, however, that where the vehicle is either (A) in violation of any rules or regulations involving an out-of-service defect relating to brake systems, steering components and/or coupling devices, or (B) transporting flammable gas, radioactive materials or explosives, the fine shall be six hundred dollars or imprisonment for not more than thirty days, or both such fine and imprisonment. 4. Every person convicted of a violation of subdivision (c) of this section when such violation occurs in a school speed zone during a school day between the hours of seven o'clock A.M. and six o'clock P.M., shall be punished as follows: (i) Where the court or tribunal records or enters that the speed upon which the conviction was based exceeded the applicable speed limit by not more than ten miles per hour, by a fine of not less than ninety nor more than three hundred dollars; (ii) Where the court or tribunal records or enters that the speed upon which the conviction was based exceeded the applicable speed limit by more than ten miles per hour but not more than thirty miles per hour, by a fine of not less than one hundred eighty nor more than six hundred dollars or by imprisonment for not more than fifteen days or by both such fine and imprisonment; (iii) Where the court or tribunal records or enters that the speed upon which the conviction was based exceeded the applicable speed limit by more than thirty miles per hour, by a fine of not less than three hundred sixty nor more than one thousand two hundred dollars, or by imprisonment for not more than thirty days, or by both such fine and imprisonment. 5. Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this subdivision, the maximum fine provided herein for the violation for which the person is sentenced may be increased by an additional one hundred fifty dollars if the conviction is for a second violation of any subdivision of this section where both violations were committed within an eighteen month period, and the maximum fine provided herein for the violation for which the person is sentenced may be increased by an additional three hundred seventy-five dollars if the conviction is for a third or subsequent violation of any subdivision of this section where all such violations were committed within an eighteen month period. Where an additional fine is provided by this paragraph, a sentence of imprisonment for not more than thirty days may be imposed in place of or in addition to any fine imposed. S 1180-a. Maximum speed limits. 1. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, no city, village, town, county, public authority, division, office or department of the state shall maintain or create (a) any speed limit in excess of fifty-five miles per hour on any road, highway, parkway or bridge or (b) any speed limit on any other portion of a public highway, which is not uniformly applicable to all types of motor vehicles using such portion of highway, if on November first, nineteen hundred seventy-three, such portion of highway had a speed limit which was uniformly applicable to all types of motor vehicles using it; provided however, a lower speed limit may be established for any vehicle operating under a special permit because of any weight or dimension of such vehicle, including any load thereon, and (c) provided further, paragraph (b) of this subdivision shall not apply to any portion of a highway during such time that the condition of the highway, weather, an accident, or other condition creates a temporary hazard to the safety of traffic on such portion of a highway. However, the commissioner of the department of transportation may establish a maximum speed limit of not more than sixty-five miles per hour on any state roadway which meets department criteria for such maximum speed. 2. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs (a) and (b) of subdivision one of this section, upon The Governor Thomas E. Dewey Thruway as such term is defined in section three hundred fifty-six of the public authorities law, the New York state thruway authority may establish a maximum speed limit of not more than sixty-five miles per hour provided that such maximum allowable speed limit is established in accordance with all applicable rules and regulations. 3. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs (a) and (b) of subdivision one of this section, upon (a) the southern tier expressway from a point east of the town of Lowman, in the county of Chemung, thence generally westerly to the Pennsylvania border and from the Chemung interchange to New York touring route twenty-six, (b) interstate route eighty-one from the Pennsylvania border in Broome county to the interchange with New York state touring route twelve in Jefferson county, (c) the Adirondack northway portion of interstate route eighty-seven from the interchange with Crescent Road in Saratoga county to the province of Quebec, (d) interstate route eighty-eight from the interchange with New York state touring route three hundred sixty-nine in Broome county to the interchange with interstate route ninety in Schenectady county, (e) interstate route three hundred ninety, known as the Genesee Expressway, from the interchange with the southern tier expressway in Steuben county to the interchange with interstate route four hundred ninety in Monroe county, (f) interstate route four hundred ninety from interstate ninety exit forty-five in Ontario county to the city of Rochester in Monroe county and from interstate ninety exit forty-seven in Genesee county to the city of Rochester in Monroe county, (g) interstate route five hundred ninety from the interchange with interstate route three hundred ninety in Monroe county to the interchange with interstate route four hundred ninety in Monroe county, (h) route seventeen from the interchange with New York touring route three hundred ninety-four to the Pennsylvania border, (i) interstate route four hundred eighty-one from the southerly interchange with interstate route eighty-one in Onondaga county to the northerly interchange with interstate route eighty-one in Onondaga county, (j) New York state touring route four hundred eighty-one from the northerly interchange with interstate route eighty-one in Onondaga county to the city of Fulton in Oswego county, (k) interstate ninety from exit eight, in the county of Rensselaer, thence generally easterly to the interchange with the Berkshire section of The Governor Thomas E. Dewey Thruway, (l) interstate route six hundred ninety, from the city of Syracuse and town of Geddes border, thence generally westerly to the interchange with the New York state thruway, (m) New York state touring route six hundred ninety, from the interchange with the New York state thruway, thence generally westerly to its intersection with New York state touring route forty-eight in the town of Lysander, (n) New York state touring route six hundred ninety-five, from the interchange with interstate route six hundred ninety approximately 2.3 miles to the interchange with New York state touring route five, (o) New York state touring route five from the interchange with New York state touring route six hundred ninety-five approximately 5.0 miles to the interchange with New York state touring route one hundred seventy-four in the town of Camillus, and (p) route five hundred thirty-one from the interchange with interstate route four hundred ninety in Monroe county to the interchange with route thirty-six in Monroe county, and (q) United States route two hundred nineteen, from the interchange with Armor Duelles Road in the town of Orchard Park, thence generally southerly to the interchange with New York state route thirty-nine in the town of Concord, the commissioner of the department of transportation may establish a maximum speed limit of not more than sixty-five miles per hour provided that such maximum allowable speed limit is established in accordance with all applicable rules and regulations. * S 1180-b. Owner liability for failure of operator to comply with certain posted maximum speed limits. (a) 1. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the city of New York is hereby authorized to establish a demonstration program imposing monetary liability on the owner of a vehicle for failure of an operator thereof to comply with posted maximum speed limits in a school speed zone within the city (i) when a school speed limit is in effect as provided in paragraphs one and two of subdivision (c) of section eleven hundred eighty of this article or (ii) when other speed limits are in effect as provided in subdivision (b), (d), (f) or (g) of section eleven hundred eighty of this article during the following times: (A) on school days during school hours and one hour before and one hour after the school day, and (B) a period during student activities at the school and up to thirty minutes immediately before and up to thirty minutes immediately after such student activities. Such demonstration program shall empower the city to install photo speed violation monitoring systems within no more than one hundred forty school speed zones within the city at any one time and to operate such systems within such zones (iii) when a school speed limit is in effect as provided in paragraphs one and two of subdivision (c) of section eleven hundred eighty of this article or (iv) when other speed limits are in effect as provided in subdivision (b), (d), (f) or (g) of section eleven hundred eighty of this article during the following times: (A) on school days during school hours and one hour before and one hour after the school day, and (B) a period during student activities at the school and up to thirty minutes immediately before and up to thirty minutes immediately after such student activities. In selecting a school speed zone in which to install and operate a photo speed violation monitoring system, the city shall consider criteria including, but not limited to the speed data, crash history, and the roadway geometry applicable to such school speed zone. ** NB Effective until July 25, 2018 ** 1. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the city of New York is hereby authorized to establish a demonstration program imposing monetary liability on the owner of a vehicle for failure of an operator thereof to comply with posted maximum speed limits in a school speed zone within the city (i) when a school speed limit is in effect as provided in paragraphs one and two of subdivision (c) of section eleven hundred eighty of this article or (ii) when other speed limits are in effect as provided in subdivision (b), (d), (f) or (g) of section eleven hundred eighty of this article during the following times: (A) on school days during school hours and one hour before and one hour after the school day, and (B) a period during student activities at the school and up to thirty minutes immediately before and up to thirty minutes immediately after such student activities. Such demonstration program shall empower the city to install photo speed violation monitoring systems within no more than twenty school speed zones within the city at any one time and to operate such systems within such zones (iii) when a school speed limit is in effect as provided in paragraphs one and two of subdivision (c) of section eleven hundred eighty of this article or (iv) when other speed limits are in effect as provided in subdivision (b), (d), (f) or (g) of section eleven hundred eighty of this article during the following times: (A) on school days during school hours and one hour before and one hour after the school day, and (B) a period during student activities at the school and up to thirty minutes immediately before and up to thirty minutes immediately after such student activities. In selecting a school speed zone in which to install and operate a photo speed violation monitoring system, the city shall consider criteria including, but not limited to the speed data, crash history, and the roadway geometry applicable to such school speed zone. ** NB Effective July 25, 2018 2. No photo speed violation monitoring system shall be used in a school speed zone unless (i) on the day it is to be used it has successfully passed a self-test of its functions; and (ii) it has undergone an annual calibration check performed pursuant to paragraph four of this subdivision. The city may install signs giving notice that a photo speed violation monitoring system is in use to be mounted on advance warning signs notifying motor vehicle operators of such upcoming school speed zone and/or on speed limit signs applicable within such school speed zone, in conformance with standards established in the MUTCD. 3. Operators of photo speed violation monitoring systems shall have completed training in the procedures for setting up, testing, and operating such systems. Each such operator shall complete and sign a daily set-up log for each such system that he or she operates that (i) states the date and time when, and the location where, the system was set up that day, and (ii) states that such operator successfully performed, and the system passed, the self-tests of such system before producing a recorded image that day. The city shall retain each such daily log until the later of the date on which the photo speed violation monitoring system to which it applies has been permanently removed from use or the final resolution of all cases involving notices of liability issued based on photographs, microphotographs, video or other recorded images produced by such system. 4. Each photo speed violation monitoring system shall undergo an annual calibration check performed by an independent calibration laboratory which shall issue a signed certificate of calibration. The city shall keep each such annual certificate of calibration on file until the final resolution of all cases involving a notice of liability issued during such year which were based on photographs, microphotographs, videotape or other recorded images produced by such photo speed violation monitoring system. 5. (i) Such demonstration program shall utilize necessary technologies to ensure, to the extent practicable, that photographs, microphotographs, videotape or other recorded images produced by such photo speed violation monitoring systems shall not include images that identify the driver, the passengers, or the contents of the vehicle. Provided, however, that no notice of liability issued pursuant to this section shall be dismissed solely because such a photograph, microphotograph, videotape or other recorded image allows for the identification of the driver, the passengers, or the contents of vehicles where the city shows that it made reasonable efforts to comply with the provisions of this paragraph in such case. (ii) Photographs, microphotographs, videotape or any other recorded image from a photo speed violation monitoring system shall be for the exclusive use of the city for the purpose of the adjudication of liability imposed pursuant to this section and of the owner receiving a notice of liability pursuant to this section, and shall be destroyed by the city upon the final resolution of the notice of liability to which such photographs, microphotographs, videotape or other recorded images relate, or one year following the date of issuance of such notice of liability, whichever is later. Notwithstanding the provisions of any other law, rule or regulation to the contrary, photographs, microphotographs, videotape or any other recorded image from a photo speed violation monitoring system shall not be open to the public, nor subject to civil or criminal process or discovery, nor used by any court or administrative or adjudicatory body in any action or proceeding therein except that which is necessary for the adjudication of a notice of liability issued pursuant to this section, and no public entity or employee, officer or agent thereof shall disclose such information, except that such photographs, microphotographs, videotape or any other recorded images from such systems: (A) shall be available for inspection and copying and use by the motor vehicle owner and operator for so long as such photographs, microphotographs, videotape or other recorded images are required to be maintained or are maintained by such public entity, employee, officer or agent; and (B) (1) shall be furnished when described in a search warrant issued by a court authorized to issue such a search warrant pursuant to article six hundred ninety of the criminal procedure law or a federal court authorized to issue such a search warrant under federal law, where such search warrant states that there is reasonable cause to believe such information constitutes evidence of, or tends to demonstrate that, a misdemeanor or felony offense was committed in this state or another state, or that a particular person participated in the commission of a misdemeanor or felony offense in this state or another state, provided, however, that if such offense was against the laws of another state, the court shall only issue a warrant if the conduct comprising such offense would, if occurring in this state, constitute a misdemeanor or felony against the laws of this state; and (2) shall be furnished in response to a subpoena duces tecum signed by a judge of competent jurisdiction and issued pursuant to article six hundred ten of the criminal procedure law or a judge or magistrate of a federal court authorized to issue such a subpoena duces tecum under federal law, where the judge finds and the subpoena states that there is reasonable cause to believe such information is relevant and material to the prosecution, or the defense, or the investigation by an authorized law enforcement official, of the alleged commission of a misdemeanor or felony in this state or another state, provided, however, that if such offense was against the laws of another state, such judge or magistrate shall only issue such subpoena if the conduct comprising such offense would, if occurring in this state, constitute a misdemeanor or felony in this state; and (3) may, if lawfully obtained pursuant to this clause and clause (A) of this subparagraph and otherwise admissible, be used in such criminal action or proceeding. (b) If the city of New York establishes a demonstration program pursuant to subdivision (a) of this section, the owner of a vehicle shall be liable for a penalty imposed pursuant to this section if such vehicle was used or operated with the permission of the owner, express or implied, within a school speed zone in violation of subdivision (c) or during the times authorized pursuant to subdivision (a) of this section in violation of subdivision (b), (d), (f) or (g) of section eleven hundred eighty of this article, such vehicle was traveling at a speed of more than ten miles per hour above the posted speed limit in effect within such school speed zone, and such violation is evidenced by information obtained from a photo speed violation monitoring system; provided however that no owner of a vehicle shall be liable for a penalty imposed pursuant to this section where the operator of such vehicle has been convicted of the underlying violation of subdivision (b), (c), (d), (f) or (g) of section eleven hundred eighty of this article. (c) For purposes of this section, the following terms shall have the following meanings: 1. "manual on uniform traffic control devices" or "MUTCD" shall mean the manual and specifications for a uniform system of traffic control devices maintained by the commissioner of transportation pursuant to section sixteen hundred eighty of this chapter; 2. "owner" shall have the meaning provided in article two-B of this chapter. 3. "photo speed violation monitoring system" shall mean a vehicle sensor installed to work in conjunction with a speed measuring device which automatically produces two or more photographs, two or more microphotographs, a videotape or other recorded images of each vehicle at the time it is used or operated in a school speed zone in violation of subdivision (b), (c), (d), (f) or (g) of section eleven hundred eighty of this article in accordance with the provisions of this section; and 4. "school speed zone" shall mean a distance not to exceed one thousand three hundred twenty feet on a highway passing a school building, entrance or exit of a school abutting on the highway. (d) A certificate, sworn to or affirmed by a technician employed by the city of New York, or a facsimile thereof, based upon inspection of photographs, microphotographs, videotape or other recorded images produced by a photo speed violation monitoring system, shall be prima facie evidence of the facts contained therein. Any photographs, microphotographs, videotape or other recorded images evidencing such a violation shall include at least two date and time stamped images of the rear of the motor vehicle that include the same stationary object near the motor vehicle and shall be available for inspection reasonably in advance of and at any proceeding to adjudicate the liability for such violation pursuant to this section. (e) An owner liable for a violation of subdivision (b), (c), (d), (f) or (g) of section eleven hundred eighty of this article pursuant to a demonstration program established pursuant to this section shall be liable for monetary penalties in accordance with a schedule of fines and penalties to be promulgated by the parking violations bureau of the city of New York. The liability of the owner pursuant to this section shall not exceed fifty dollars for each violation; provided, however, that such parking violations bureau may provide for an additional penalty not in excess of twenty-five dollars for each violation for the failure to respond to a notice of liability within the prescribed time period. (f) An imposition of liability under the demonstration program established pursuant to this section shall not be deemed a conviction as an operator and shall not be made part of the operating record of the person upon whom such liability is imposed nor shall it be used for insurance purposes in the provision of motor vehicle insurance coverage. (g) 1. A notice of liability shall be sent by first class mail to each person alleged to be liable as an owner for a violation of subdivision (b), (c), (d), (f) or (g) of section eleven hundred eighty of this article pursuant to this section, within fourteen business days if such owner is a resident of this state and within forty-five business days if such owner is a non-resident. Personal delivery on the owner shall not be required. A manual or automatic record of mailing prepared in the ordinary course of business shall be prima facie evidence of the facts contained therein. 2. A notice of liability shall contain the name and address of the person alleged to be liable as an owner for a violation of subdivision (b), (c), (d), (f) or (g) of section eleven hundred eighty of this article pursuant to this section, the registration number of the vehicle involved in such violation, the location where such violation took place, the date and time of such violation, the identification number of the camera which recorded the violation or other document locator number, at least two date and time stamped images of the rear of the motor vehicle that include the same stationary object near the motor vehicle, and the certificate charging the liability. 3. The notice of liability shall contain information advising the person charged of the manner and the time in which he or she may contest the liability alleged in the notice. Such notice of liability shall also contain a prominent warning to advise the person charged that failure to contest in the manner and time provided shall be deemed an admission of liability and that a default judgment may be entered thereon. 4. The notice of liability shall be prepared and mailed by the city of New York, or by any other entity authorized by the city to prepare and mail such notice of liability. (h) Adjudication of the liability imposed upon owners of this section shall be by the New York city parking violations bureau. (i) If an owner receives a notice of liability pursuant to this section for any time period during which the vehicle or the number plate or plates of such vehicle was reported to the police department as having been stolen, it shall be a valid defense to an allegation of liability for a violation of subdivision (b), (c), (d), (f) or (g) of section eleven hundred eighty of this article pursuant to this section that the vehicle or the number plate or plates of such vehicle had been reported to the police as stolen prior to the time the violation occurred and had not been recovered by such time. For purposes of asserting the defense provided by this subdivision, it shall be sufficient that a certified copy of the police report on the stolen vehicle or number plate or plates of such vehicle be sent by first class mail to the New York city parking violations bureau, or by any other entity authorized by the city to prepare and mail such notice of liability. (j) Adjudication of the liability imposed upon owners of this section shall be by the New York city parking violations bureau. (k) 1. An owner who is a lessor of a vehicle to which a notice of liability was issued pursuant to subdivision (g) of this section shall not be liable for the violation of subdivision (b), (c), (d), (f) or (g) of section eleven hundred eighty of this article pursuant to this section, provided that: (i) prior to the violation, the lessor has filed with such parking violations bureau in accordance with the provisions of section two hundred thirty-nine of this chapter; and (ii) within thirty-seven days after receiving notice from such bureau of the date and time of a liability, together with the other information contained in the original notice of liability, the lessor submits to such bureau the correct name and address of the lessee of the vehicle identified in the notice of liability at the time of such violation, together with such other additional information contained in the rental, lease or other contract document, as may be reasonably required by such bureau pursuant to regulations that may be promulgated for such purpose. 2. Failure to comply with subparagraph (ii) of paragraph (a) of this subdivision shall render the owner liable for the penalty prescribed in this section. 3. Where the lessor complies with the provisions of paragraph (a) of this subdivision, the lessee of such vehicle on the date of such violation shall be deemed to be the owner of such vehicle for purposes of this section, shall be subject to liability for such violation pursuant to this section and shall be sent a notice of liability pursuant to subdivision nine of this section. (l) 1. If the owner liable for a violation of subdivision (c) or (d) of section eleven hundred eighty of this article pursuant to this section was not the operator of the vehicle at the time of the violation, the owner may maintain an action for indemnification against the operator. 2. Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, no owner of a vehicle shall be subject to a monetary fine imposed pursuant to this section if the operator of such vehicle was operating such vehicle without the consent of the owner at the time such operator operated such vehicle in violation of subdivision (b), (c), (d), (f) or (g) of section eleven hundred eighty of this article. For purposes of this subdivision there shall be a presumption that the operator of such vehicle was operating such vehicle with the consent of the owner at the time of such operator operated such vehicle in violation of subdivision (b), (c), (d), (f) or (g) of section eleven hundred eighty of this article. (m) Nothing in this section shall be construed to limit the liability of an operator of a vehicle for any violation of subdivision (c) or (d) of section eleven hundred eighty of this article. (n) If the city adopts a demonstration program pursuant to subdivision one of this section it shall conduct a study and submit a report on the results of the use of photo devices to the governor, the temporary president of the senate and the speaker of the assembly. Such report shall include: 1. the locations where and dates when photo speed violation monitoring systems were used; 2. the aggregate number, type and severity of crashes, fatalities, injuries and property damage reported within all school speed zones within the city, to the extent the information is maintained by the department of motor vehicles of this state; 3. the aggregate number, type and severity of crashes, fatalities, injuries and property damage reported within school speed zones where photo speed violation monitoring systems were used, to the extent the information is maintained by the department of motor vehicles of this state; 4. the number of violations recorded within all school speed zones within the city, in the aggregate on a daily, weekly and monthly basis; 5. the number of violations recorded within each school speed zone where a photo speed violation monitoring system is used, in the aggregate on a daily, weekly and monthly basis; 6. the number of violations recorded within all school speed zones within the city that were: (i) more than ten but not more than twenty miles per hour over the posted speed limit; (ii) more than twenty but not more than thirty miles per hour over the posted speed limit; (iii) more than thirty but not more than forty miles per hour over the posted speed limit; and (iv) more than forty miles per hour over the posted speed limit; 7. the number of violations recorded within each school speed zone where a photo speed violation monitoring system is used that were: (i) more than ten but not more than twenty miles per hour over the posted speed limit; (ii) more than twenty but not more than thirty miles per hour over the posted speed limit; (iii) more than thirty but not more than forty miles per hour over the posted speed limit; and (iv) more than forty miles per hour over the posted speed limit; 8. the total number of notices of liability issued for violations recorded by such systems; 9. the number of fines and total amount of fines paid after the first notice of liability issued for violations recorded by such systems; 10. the number of violations adjudicated and the results of such adjudications including breakdowns of dispositions made for violations recorded by such systems; 11. the total amount of revenue realized by the city in connection with the program; 12. the expenses incurred by the city in connection with the program; and 13. the quality of the adjudication process and its results. (o) It shall be a defense to any prosecution for a violation of subdivision (b), (c), (d), (f) or (g) of section eleven hundred eighty of this article pursuant to this section that such photo speed violation monitoring system was malfunctioning at the time of the alleged violation. * NB Repealed August 30, 2018 * S 1180-c Owner liability for failure of operator to comply with certain posted maximum speed limits.. (a) 1. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the counties of Nassau and Suffolk are hereby authorized to establish a demonstration program imposing monetary liability on the owner of a vehicle for failure of an operator thereof to comply with posted maximum speed limits in a school speed zone within the counties (i) when a school speed limit is in effect as provided in paragraphs one and two of subdivision (c) of section eleven hundred eighty of this article or (ii) when other speed limits are in effect as provided in subdivision (b), (d), (f) or (g) of section eleven hundred eighty of this article during the following times: (A) on school days during school hours and one hour before and one hour after the school day, and (B) a period during student activities at the school and up to thirty minutes immediately before and up to thirty minutes immediately after such student activities. Such demonstration program shall empower the counties to install photo speed violation monitoring systems within no more than one school speed zone per school district within each county at any one time and to operate such systems within such zones (iii) when a school speed limit is in effect as provided in paragraphs one and two of subdivision (c) of section eleven hundred eighty of this article or (iv) when other speed limits are in effect as provided in subdivision (b), (d), (f) or (g) of section eleven hundred eighty of this article during the following times: (A) on school days during school hours and one hour before and one hour after the school day, and (B) a period during student activities at the school and up to thirty minutes immediately before and up to thirty minutes immediately after such student activities. In selecting a school speed zone in which to install and operate a photo speed violation monitoring system, the counties shall consider criteria including, but not limited to the speed data, crash history, and the roadway geometry applicable to such school speed zone. 2. No photo speed violation monitoring system shall be used in a school speed zone unless (i) on the day it is to be used it has successfully passed a self-test of its functions; and (ii) it has undergone an annual calibration check performed pursuant to paragraph four of this subdivision. The counties may install signs giving notice that a photo speed violation monitoring system is in use to be mounted on advance warning signs notifying motor vehicle operators of such upcoming school speed zone and/or on speed limit signs applicable within such school speed zone, in conformance with standards established in the MUTCD. 3. Operators of photo speed violation monitoring systems shall have completed training in the procedures for setting up, testing, and operating such systems. Each such operator shall complete and sign a daily set-up log for each such system that he or she operates that (i) states the date and time when, and the location where, the system was set up that day, and (ii) states that such operator successfully performed, and the system passed, the self-tests of such system before producing a recorded image that day. The counties shall retain each such daily log until the later of the date on which the photo speed violation monitoring system to which it applies has been permanently removed from use or the final resolution of all cases involving notices of liability issued based on photographs, microphotographs, video or other recorded images produced by such system. 4. Each photo speed violation monitoring system shall undergo an annual calibration check performed by an independent calibration laboratory which shall issue a signed certificate of calibration. The counties shall keep each such annual certificate of calibration on file until the final resolution of all cases involving a notice of liability issued during such year which were based on photographs, microphotographs, videotape or other recorded images produced by such photo speed violation monitoring system. 5. (i) Such demonstration program shall utilize necessary technologies to ensure, to the extent practicable, that photographs, microphotographs, videotape or other recorded images produced by such photo speed violation monitoring systems shall not include images that identify the driver, the passengers, or the contents of the vehicle. Provided, however, that no notice of liability issued pursuant to this section shall be dismissed solely because such a photograph, microphotograph, videotape or other recorded image allows for the identification of the driver, the passengers, or the contents of vehicles where either county, as applicable, shows that it made reasonable efforts to comply with the provisions of this paragraph in such case. (ii) Photographs, microphotographs, videotape or any other recorded image from a photo speed violation monitoring system shall be for the exclusive use of each such county for the purpose of the adjudication of liability imposed pursuant to this section and of the owner receiving a notice of liability pursuant to this section, and shall be destroyed by each such county upon the final resolution of the notice of liability to which such photographs, microphotographs, videotape or other recorded images relate, or one year following the date of issuance of such notice of liability, whichever is later. Notwithstanding the provisions of any other law, rule or regulation to the contrary, photographs, microphotographs, videotape or any other recorded image from a photo speed violation monitoring system shall not be open to the public, nor subject to civil or criminal process or discovery, nor used by any court or administrative or adjudicatory body in any action or proceeding therein except that which is necessary for the adjudication of a notice of liability issued pursuant to this section, and no public entity or employee, officer or agent thereof shall disclose such information, except that such photographs, microphotographs, videotape or any other recorded images from such systems: (A) shall be available for inspection and copying and use by the motor vehicle owner and operator for so long as such photographs, microphotographs, videotape or other recorded images are required to be maintained or are maintained by such public entity, employee, officer or agent; and (B) (1) shall be furnished when described in a search warrant issued by a court authorized to issue such a search warrant pursuant to article six hundred ninety of the criminal procedure law or a federal court authorized to issue such a search warrant under federal law, where such search warrant states that there is reasonable cause to believe such information constitutes evidence of, or tends to demonstrate that, a misdemeanor or felony offense was committed in this state or another state, or that a particular person participated in the commission of a misdemeanor or felony offense in this state or another state, provided, however, that if such offense was against the laws of another state, the court shall only issue a warrant if the conduct comprising such offense would, if occurring in this state, constitute a misdemeanor or felony against the laws of this state; and (2) shall be furnished in response to a subpoena duces tecum signed by a judge of competent jurisdiction and issued pursuant to article six hundred ten of the criminal procedure law or a judge or magistrate of a federal court authorized to issue such a subpoena duces tecum under federal law, where the judge finds and the subpoena states that there is reasonable cause to believe such information is relevant and material to the prosecution, or the defense, or the investigation by an authorized law enforcement official, of the alleged commission of a misdemeanor or felony in this state or another state, provided, however, that if such offense was against the laws of another state, such judge or magistrate shall only issue such subpoena if the conduct comprising such offense would, if occurring in this state, constitute a misdemeanor or felony in this state; and (3) may, if lawfully obtained pursuant to this clause and clause (A) of this subparagraph and otherwise admissible, be used in such criminal action or proceeding. (b) If the counties of Nassau and Suffolk establish a demonstration program pursuant to subdivision (a) of this section, the owner of a vehicle shall be liable for a penalty imposed pursuant to this section if such vehicle was used or operated with the permission of the owner, express or implied, within a school speed zone in violation of subdivision (c) of section eleven hundred eighty of this article or during the times authorized pursuant to subdivision (a) of this section in violation of subdivision (b), (d), (f) or (g) of section eleven hundred eighty of this article, such vehicle was traveling at a speed of more than ten miles per hour above the posted speed limit in effect within such school speed zone, and such violation is evidenced by information obtained from a photo speed violation monitoring system; provided however that no owner of a vehicle shall be liable for a penalty imposed pursuant to this section where the operator of such vehicle has been convicted of the underlying violation of subdivision (b), (c), (d), (f) or (g) of section eleven hundred eighty of this article. (c) For purposes of this section, the following terms shall have the following meanings: 1. "manual on uniform traffic control devices" or "MUTCD" shall mean the manual and specifications for a uniform system of traffic control devices maintained by the commissioner of transportation pursuant to section sixteen hundred eighty of this chapter; 2. "owner" shall have the meaning provided in article two-B of this chapter. 3. "photo speed violation monitoring system" shall mean a vehicle sensor installed to work in conjunction with a speed measuring device which automatically produces two or more photographs, two or more microphotographs, a videotape or other recorded images of each vehicle at the time it is used or operated in a school speed zone in violation of subdivision (b), (c), (d), (f) or (g) of section eleven hundred eighty of this article in accordance with the provisions of this section; and 4. "school speed zone" shall mean a distance not to exceed one thousand three hundred twenty feet on a highway passing a school building, entrance or exit of a school abutting on the highway. (d) A certificate, sworn to or affirmed by a technician employed by the counties of Nassau or Suffolk as applicable, or a facsimile thereof, based upon inspection of photographs, microphotographs, videotape or other recorded images produced by a photo speed violation monitoring system, shall be prima facie evidence of the facts contained therein. Any photographs, microphotographs, videotape or other recorded images evidencing such a violation shall include at least two date and time stamped images of the rear of the motor vehicle that include the same stationary object near the motor vehicle and shall be available for inspection reasonably in advance of and at any proceeding to adjudicate the liability for such violation pursuant to this section. (e) An owner liable for a violation of subdivision (b), (c), (d), (f) or (g) of section eleven hundred eighty of this article pursuant to a demonstration program established pursuant to this section shall be liable for monetary penalties in accordance with a schedule of fines and penalties to be promulgated by the traffic and parking violations agencies of the counties of Nassau and Suffolk. The liability of the owner pursuant to this section shall not exceed fifty dollars for each violation; provided, however, that each such traffic and parking violations agency may provide for an additional penalty not in excess of twenty-five dollars for each violation for the failure to respond to a notice of liability within the prescribed time period. (f) An imposition of liability under the demonstration program established pursuant to this section shall not be deemed a conviction as an operator and shall not be made part of the operating record of the person upon whom such liability is imposed nor shall it be used for insurance purposes in the provision of motor vehicle insurance coverage. (g) 1. A notice of liability shall be sent by first class mail to each person alleged to be liable as an owner for a violation of subdivision (b), (c), (d), (f) or (g) of section eleven hundred eighty of this article pursuant to this section, within fourteen business days if such owner is a resident of this state and within forty-five business days if such owner is a non-resident. Personal delivery on the owner shall not be required. A manual or automatic record of mailing prepared in the ordinary course of business shall be prima facie evidence of the facts contained therein. 2. A notice of liability shall contain the name and address of the person alleged to be liable as an owner for a violation of subdivision (b), (c), (d), (f) or (g) of section eleven hundred eighty of this article pursuant to this section, the registration number of the vehicle involved in such violation, the location where such violation took place, the date and time of such violation, the identification number of the camera which recorded the violation or other document locator number, at least two date and time stamped images of the rear of the motor vehicle that include the same stationary object near the motor vehicle, and the certificate charging the liability. 3. The notice of liability shall contain information advising the person charged of the manner and the time in which he or she may contest the liability alleged in the notice. Such notice of liability shall also contain a prominent warning to advise the person charged that failure to contest in the manner and time provided shall be deemed an admission of liability and that a default judgment may be entered thereon. 4. The notice of liability shall be prepared and mailed by the county of Nassau or Suffolk, as applicable, or by any other entity authorized by such counties to prepare and mail such notice of liability. (h) Adjudication of the liability imposed upon owners of this section shall be by the court having jurisdiction over traffic infractions. (i) If an owner receives a notice of liability pursuant to this section for any time period during which the vehicle or the number plate or plates of such vehicle was reported to the police department as having been stolen, it shall be a valid defense to an allegation of liability for a violation of subdivision (b), (c), (d), (f) or (g) of section eleven hundred eighty of this article pursuant to this section that the vehicle or the number plate or plates of such vehicle had been reported to the police as stolen prior to the time the violation occurred and had not been recovered by such time. For purposes of asserting the defense provided by this subdivision, it shall be sufficient that a certified copy of the police report on the stolen vehicle or number plate or plates of such vehicle be sent by first class mail to the court having jurisdiction in such counties. (j) An owner who is a lessor of a vehicle to which a notice of liability was issued pursuant to subdivision (g) of this section shall not be liable for the violation of subdivision (b), (c), (d), (f) or (g) of section eleven hundred eighty of this article, provided that he or she sends to the court having jurisdiction a copy of the rental, lease or other such contract document covering such vehicle on the date of the violation, with the name and address of the lessee clearly legible, within thirty-seven days after receiving notice from the court of the date and time of such violation, together with the other information contained in the original notice of liability. Failure to send such information within such thirty-seven day time period shall render the owner liable for the penalty prescribed by this section. Where the lessor complies with the provisions of this paragraph, the lessee of such vehicle on the date of such violation shall be deemed to be the owner of such vehicle for purposes of this section, shall be subject to liability for the violation of subdivision (b), (c), (d), (f) or (g) of section eleven hundred eighty of this article pursuant to this section and shall be sent a notice of liability pursuant to subdivision (g) of this section. (k) 1. If the owner liable for a violation of subdivision (c) or (d) of section eleven hundred eighty of this article pursuant to this section was not the operator of the vehicle at the time of the violation, the owner may maintain an action for indemnification against the operator. 2. Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, no owner of a vehicle shall be subject to a monetary fine imposed pursuant to this section if the operator of such vehicle was operating such vehicle without the consent of the owner at the time such operator operated such vehicle in violation of subdivision (b), (c), (d), (f) or (g) of section eleven hundred eighty of this article. For purposes of this subdivision there shall be a presumption that the operator of such vehicle was operating such vehicle with the consent of the owner at the time such operator operated such vehicle in violation of subdivision (b), (c), (d), (f) or (g) of section eleven hundred eighty of this article. (l) Nothing in this section shall be construed to limit the liability of an operator of a vehicle for any violation of subdivision (c) or (d) of section eleven hundred eighty of this article. (m) Notwithstanding any law to the contrary, the net proceeds of any penalty after expenses of administration, resulting from a photo speed violation monitoring system used in the course of this program located on a village maintained street or highway within the county of Nassau shall inure to said village. (n) If either county adopts a demonstration program pursuant to this section it shall conduct a study and submit a report on the results of the use of photo devices to the governor, the temporary president of the senate and the speaker of the assembly. Such report shall include: 1. the locations where and dates when photo speed violation monitoring systems were used; 2. the aggregate number, type and severity of crashes, fatalities, injuries and property damage reported within all school speed zones within such county, to the extent the information is maintained by the department of motor vehicles of this state; 3. the aggregate number, type and severity of crashes, fatalities, injuries and property damage reported within school speed zones where photo speed violation monitoring systems were used, to the extent the information is maintained by the department of motor vehicles of this state; 4. the number of violations recorded within all school speed zones within such county, in the aggregate on a daily, weekly and monthly basis; 5. the number of violations recorded within each school speed zone where a photo speed violation monitoring system is used, in the aggregate on a daily, weekly and monthly basis; 6. the number of violations recorded within all school speed zones within such county that were: (i) more than ten but not more than twenty miles per hour over the posted speed limit; (ii) more than twenty but not more than thirty miles per hour over the posted speed limit; (iii) more than thirty but not more than forty miles per hour over the posted speed limit; and (iv) more than forty miles per hour over the posted speed limit; 7. the number of violations recorded within each school speed zone where a photo speed violation monitoring system is used that were: (i) more than ten but not more than twenty miles per hour over the posted speed limit; (ii) more than twenty but not more than thirty miles per hour over the posted speed limit; (iii) more than thirty but not more than forty miles per hour over the posted speed limit; and (iv) more than forty miles per hour over the posted speed limit; 8. the total number of notices of liability issued for violations recorded by such systems; 9. the number of fines and total amount of fines paid after the first notice of liability issued for violations recorded by such systems; 10. the number of violations adjudicated and the results of such adjudications including breakdowns of dispositions made for violations recorded by such systems; 11. the total amount of revenue realized by such county in connection with the program; 12. the expenses incurred by such county in connection with the program; and 13. the quality of the adjudication process and its results. (o) It shall be a defense to any prosecution for a violation of subdivision (b), (c), (d), (f) or (g) of section eleven hundred eighty of this article pursuant to this section that such photo speed violation monitoring system was malfunctioning at the time of the alleged violation. * NB Repealed July 25, 2018 S 1181. Minimum speed regulations. (a) No person shall drive a motor vehicle at such a slow speed as to impede the normal and reasonable movement of traffic except when reduced speed is necessary for safe operation or in compliance with law. (b) Whenever a minimum speed limit has been established as authorized in sections sixteen hundred twenty or sixteen hundred forty-two, no person shall drive at a speed less than such minimum speed limit except when entering upon or preparing to exit from the highway upon which such a minimum speed limit has been established, when preparing to stop, or when necessary for safe operation or in compliance with law. S 1182. Speed contests and races. 1. Except as provided in section eleven hundred eighty-two-a of this article or section sixteen hundred thirty, sixteen hundred forty, sixteen hundred forty-two or sixteen hundred sixty of this chapter, no races, exhibitions or contests of speed shall be held and no person shall engage in or aid or abet in any motor vehicle or other speed contest or exhibition of speed on a highway. Such event, if held, shall be fully and efficiently patrolled for the entire distance over which such race, exhibition or contest for speed is to be held. Participants in a race, exhibition or contest of speed are exempted from compliance with any traffic laws otherwise applicable thereto, but shall exercise reasonable care. A violation of any of the provisions of this section shall constitute a misdemeanor and be punishable by imprisonment of not more than thirty days or a fine of not less than three hundred dollars nor more than five hundred twenty-five dollars, or both such fine and imprisonment. 2. A second conviction within twelve months of a violation of this section shall be punishable by imprisonment of not more than six months or a fine of not less than five hundred twenty-five dollars nor more than seven hundred fifty dollars, or both such fine and imprisonment. S 1182-a. Multi-jurisdictional speed contests, races and similar special events. 1. Notwithstanding any other provision of law to the contrary, the department of transportation may, by order, rule or regulation, prohibit or regulate races, speed contests, exhibitions of speed or other similar special events which are held on public highways in more than one county. Participants in an approved race, contest, or exhibition are exempted from compliance with any traffic laws otherwise applicable thereto, but shall exercise reasonable care. Such rules and regulations shall include, among other things, provision for adequate insurance coverage; provision for approval by the municipalities involved; provision for payment or reimbursement of all the costs and expenses of the state which are incurred in connection with such an event; provision for assumption of risk for damages or claims by the organizer, sponsor, driver, rider or participant in such event; provision for the closure of or restriction on public use and travel upon highways or parts thereof for a certain period of time whenever the state or local police determine such is necessary to protect the public safety, security, or convenience. Prior to the scheduled date of a proposed multi-jurisdictional race, speed contest, exhibition of speed or other similar special event, the sponsor or organizer shall apply, in writing, to the department of transportation for consideration of and authorization to conduct such an event. Such application shall be reviewed by the commissioner of transportation, the commissioner of economic development and the superintendent of state police, or their designees. Only if such persons unanimously agree that the proposed event should take place, the department of transportation shall continue the review process and shall establish such reasonable requirements as are necessary to protect the public safety. 2. Notwithstanding any other provision of law to the contrary, no person or entity shall have the right to bring an action against the state or municipality or any person employed by the state or municipality who was acting within the scope of his authority for damages resulting from or in connection with any such race, contest or exhibition. In the event of any such claim being brought against any such individual employed by the state, the provisions of section seventeen of the public officers law shall apply. 3. The division of state police and the department of commerce are hereby authorized to provide necessary support and assistance to the department of transportation in connection with its power to prohibit or regulate races, speed contests, exhibitions of speed or other similar special events pursuant to this section. S 1182-b. Filming of movies, commercials and similar events. 1. Notwithstanding any other provision of law to the contrary, the department of transportation may, by order, rule or regulation, prohibit or regulate the filming of movies, commercials and similar events on state highways. Such rules and regulations shall include, among other things, provision for adequate insurance coverage; provision for consultation by the production company of any movie, commercial or similar events with the municipality involved; provision for payment or reimbursement of all of the costs and expenses of the state which are incurred in connection with such an event; provision for assumption of risk for damages or claims by the production company, its employees and participants in such event; provision for the closure of or restriction on public use and travel upon highways or parts thereof for a certain period of time whenever the state police determine such is necessary to protect the public safety, security, or convenience. Prior to the scheduled date of the filming of a movie, commercial or other similar events, the production company shall apply, in writing, to the department of transportation for consideration of and authorization to film such an event. Such application shall be reviewed by the commissioner of transportation, or his designee, the commissioner of commerce, or his designee, and the superintendent of state police, or his designee. Only if such persons unanimously agree that the proposed filming should take place, the department of transportation shall continue the review process and shall establish such reasonable requirements as are necessary to protect the public safety. 2. Notwithstanding any other provision of law to the contrary, no person or entity shall have the right to bring an action against the state or municipality or any person employed by the state or municipality who was acting within the scope of his authority for damages resulting from or in connection with the filming of a movie, commercial or similar events. In the event of any such claim being brought against any such individual employed by the state, the provisions of section seventeen of the public officers law shall apply. 3. The division of state police and department of commerce are hereby authorized to provide necessary support and assistance to the department of transportation in connection with its power to prohibit or regulate the filming of movies, commercials or other similar events pursuant to this section.